There are different schools in psychology, among of these are Structuralism, Functionalism, the Gestalt Psychology, Behaviorism, Psychoanalysis, Humanism, Cognitive Psychology, and Possibility Psychology.
Structuralism was developed by Wudnt and Titchener. This school of psychology primarily deals with the study of elements forming the structure of the mind. Structuralist use the method of 'Introspection'.
Functionalism was developed at the University of Chicago by John Dewey and James Angell. It was also developed at Harvard University by William James. Functionalist study the functions of consciousness. They theorize that the learning process is aided by consciousness. Functionalists also deal with personality, intelligence, and other practical problem related to the field of education. The functionalist is interested in the learning process because the learning process is one of the means of adjusting to the environment where one lives.
Gestalt Psychology was developed by Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Wertheimer and Koffha (German psychologist). Gestalt psychologists analyze experience by configuration of the entirety or its patterns. These psychologists give importance to wholeness in the process of learning. They emphasize that the whole is greater than the sum to its parts. Furthermore, they study how form influences perception. They theorize that shapes and forms need to be described through organizing the entire perceptual field.
Behaviorism was developed by John B. Watson, a professor of psychology at John Hopkins University. Behaviorists approach psychology through actions. They stress that behaviors are observable, in contrast to the experience of consciousness which is subjective and only known to the person involved.
Psychoanalysis was developed by Dr. Sigmund Freud. His theory explains physical, nervous and emotional disorders using organic explanations. Sigmund Freud looked to the sub-conscious mind to uncover motivations and desires.
Humanism as contrary to the humanist and the behaviorist starts from the assumption that every person is has a desire to be good. Humanism also asserts that criminality as well as delinquency are caused by an environment that is unhealthy and inadequate for the proper development of the individual.
Cognitive Psychology is a blend of humanism and behaviorism. It gives special attention on thought process, the reasoning as well as problem solving. Cognitive psychologists are concerned with understanding the basic methods of the operation of the human brain.
Possibility Psychology was developed since 1975 by Clinton Callahan and a growing team of Trainers in small privately-funded research groups around North America and Europe. Possibility Psychology distinguishes that humans are Beings that wear five different bodies (physical, intellectual, emotional, energetic, and archetypal). Through authentic adulthood initiatory processes beginning at eighteen years of age, the Being can distinguish between itself and its psychological survival strategy, and thereby build Matrix to hold more and more consciousness. A Being can take radical responsibility for its personality and learn to navigate the three worlds (upperworld, middleworld, and underworld), jack-in to its Archetypal Lineage, and consciously journey into archetypal domains as a service to others.